System Definition, Meaning & Synonyms

System Definition, Meaning & Synonyms

Feedback is the measurement of outputs against some set of standard benchmarks. The comparison of systems performance with some set benchmarks acts as the basis of the feedback. The feedback is positive or feed-forward when it increases the inputs, and when the input is reduced then it is negative. The role of feedback is not only to change the inputs but many times it is done only to get the information.

A calculation based on a single precisely defined input function will not do. There are many kinds of systems that can be analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. For example, in an analysis of urban systems dynamics, A .W. Steiss defined five intersecting systems, including the physical subsystem and behavioral system. For sociological models influenced by systems theory, Kenneth D. Bailey defined systems in terms of conceptual, concrete, and abstract systems, either isolated, closed, or open.

  • The methodology for defining, abstracting, modeling, and analyzing system of systems problems is typically referred to as system of systems engineering.
  • This website presents the approved final output from the initiative in on-line form, as a set of linked web pages.
  • For example, a systemic disease affects the entire body or organism, and systemic changes to an organization have an impact on the entire organization, including its most basic operations.
  • Using HR software, employees can view their compensation data and make time-off requests.

Any organized assembly of resources and procedures united and regulated by interaction or interdependence to accomplish a set of specific functions. Systems engineering is not so much a branch of engineering as it is a technique for applying knowledge from other branches of engineering and disciplines of science in effective combination to solve a multifaceted engineering problem. It is related to operations research but differs from it in that it is more a planning and design function, frequently involving technical innovation. Probably the most important aspect of systems engineering is its application to the development of new technological possibilities with the specific objective of putting them to use as rapidly as economic and technical considerations permit. In this sense it may be seen as the midwife of technological development.

Information and computer science

For example, a systemic disease affects the entire body or organism, and systemic changes to an organization have an impact on the entire organization, including its most basic operations. Any time various separate things act together in some organized way, you can call the entire group of interconnected things a system. Your veins, arteries, and heart together make up your body’s circulatory system, and the group of planets which rotate around the sun are called a solar system.

Yet systems engineering is not to be confused with these other fields. Fundamentally a point of view or a method of attack, it should not be identified with any particular substantive area. In its nature and in the nature of the problems it attacks, it is interdisciplinary, a procedure for putting separate techniques and bodies of knowledge together to achieve a prescribed goal in an effective manner. The word “systems” is frequently used also in other combinations, especially when elements of technological advance are not so important. Systems theory, or sometimes systems science, is frequently applied to the analysis of physical dynamic systems. An example would be a complex electrical network with one or more feedback loops, in which the effects of a process return to cause changes in the source of the process.

Anengineered systemis a system designed or adapted to interact with an anticipated operational environment to achieve one or more intended purposes while complying with applicable constraints. The definitions were approved in 2019, and the formal published document version of the new definitions was launched by INCOSE at the International Symposium in Summer 2019. Another reason for overlap is the fact that the distinction between new and existing equipment is not quite clear-cut. If the new equipment is sufficiently well based on existing design techniques and seems to involve few enough technical uncertainties, the issue becomes unimportant.


One such example is Gantt chart, which shows a static depiction of an activity-time relationship. Since, all the man-made systems are present within the natural world hence various interfaces are required to be addressed. The systems existing in nature are not made by the people but are able to meet their personal requirements. The behavior of the elements and their effect on the whole are interdependent.

definition of system

The inputs’ are those elements which enter any stream from outside. These inputs can be in various forms such as human efforts, physical items or the information. Further, the system works on the inputs to produce the desired results known as ‘output’. The outputs can be anything, information, materials or services. The hardware components of the computer system are selected in such a way that they all function well collectively, and also with the software components of the computer. The first general textbook on systems engineering appeared in 1957 and was followed by a number of other works that treated both industrial and military applications.


It returns the output to and takes inputs from the surroundings. When one system interacts with the other system, then its boundaries should be clearly defined, i.e., the limits that identify its components, processes, and interrelationship between them. Systems such as, the biological system of the human body, the socio-economic system of a business organisation, the technological system of an oil refinery, and the physical system of the sun and its planets. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘systemic.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Systemic describes what relates to or affects an entire system.

The concept of hardware and software configurations has recently undergone a radical change thanks to virtualization. Instead of using physical hardware, the majority of current computing systems use virtualized computer systems. Through the use of virtualization, a single computer’s hardware resources can be split up into several virtual machines. A computer system consists of hardware components that have been carefully chosen so that they work well together and software components or programs that run in the computer.

definition of system

An interconnected set of information resources under the same direct management control that shares common functionality. A system normally includes hardware, software, information, data, applications, communications, and people. Environment and boundariesSystems theory views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. One scopes a system by defining its boundary; this means choosing which entities are inside the system and which are outside—part of the environment. One can make simplified representations of the system in order to understand it and to predict or impact its future behavior.

The main software component is itself an operating system that manages and provides services to other programs that can be run in the computer. Comments about specific definitions should be sent to the authors of the linked Source publication. For NIST publications, an email is usually found within the document. The data also raise questions about government stability in majoritarian and proportional systems. A balanced combination of declarative and imperative languages is desirable for implementing multi-agent systems. Moreover, it is desirable that agent-oriented development environments can support scalability and heterogeneity aspects of multi-agent systems.

While output devices reflect or display user data, input devices are designed to accept user data. Social and cognitive sciences recognize systems in human person models and in human societies. They include human brain functions and mental processes as well as normative ethics systems and social/cultural behavioral patterns. Enterprise software systems serve a variety of organizational and technical functions for businesses.

So-called planning, programming, and budgeting techniques were developed to provide similar combinations of systems engineering and financial management. In a broad sense it can be regarded as simple extension of standard scientific methodology. It is a common procedure in science to list all the factors that might affect a given situation and select from the complete list those that appear critical. Mathematical modeling, perhaps the most basic tool in systems engineering, is a technique encountered in any branch of science that has become sufficiently quantitative. Thus, in this broad sense, the systems approach is simply the inheritor of a tradition that is generations, if not centuries, old. Taken together, all these descriptions suggest that a complete system of systems engineering framework is needed to improve decision support for system of systems problems.

The final definitions take into account the extensive comments received during the review of the previous draft in September 2018. The review was open to all INCOSE members, and attracted over 350 individual comments and suggestions. System software.Programs that are needed for the computer to function, including the OS, utilities software, programming language translators and library routines.

The main update consists in making the VOC definition more specific, to include major SARS-CoV-2 evolutionary steps that require major public health interventions. For the updated definitions, please visit the WHO variant tracking website. A computer system is a collection of hardware and software that performs specific tasks. CRM software is one of the most essential tools for enterprises, since it streamlines many pieces of information that businesses need to run operations successfully and maintain good customer relationships. Binary code, the electrical controls which run all computing devices.

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A working combination of hardware, software, and data communications devices. A subsystem description is a system object that contains information defining the characteristics of an operating environment controlled by the system. The data tests are performed to verify the correctness of the individual subsystem configuration data (e.g. MA Length, Static Speed Profile, …) and they are related to a single subsystem in order to test its Specific Application . WHO is also updating the working definitions for VOCs and VOIs.

The need to solve system of systems problems is urgent not only because of the growing complexity of today’s challenges, but also because such problems require large monetary and resource investments with multi-generational consequences. The hardware components include the computer itself; the physical parts inside the computer, such as a circuit board and storage devices; and any peripherals attached to the computer. These components can be either classified as input devices, such as a mouse or keyboard, or output devices, such as a monitor or a printer.

Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. In this paper, we put forward the environment as a first-order abstraction in multiagent systems. In different countries and/or health systems, this may mean from national to regional or from regional to municipal. Despite the variety of systems, the objectives guiding these reforms have been rather similar. Party-based systems create career incentives for the legislator to support the overall aims of the parties. Recent years have seen considerable progress in the development of chemical self-replicating systems.

definition of system

While the individual systems constituting a system of systems can be very different and operate independently, their interactions typically expose and deliver important emergent properties. These emergent patterns have an evolving nature that stakeholders must recognize, analyze and understand. The system of systems approach does not advocate particular tools, methods or practices; instead, it promotes a new way of thinking for solving grand challenges where the interactions of technology, policy, and economics are the primary drivers. System of systems study is related to the general study of designing, complexity and systems engineering, but also brings to the fore the additional challenge of design.

Alexis Oatman reports the event will help raise essential funds to support the organization’s ongoing mission to address and improve the systemic and community structures that lead to poor birth outcomes. The organizations both advocate for social justice issues and systemic reform through socialism, according to their websites. Systems in the physical universe are composed of matter and energy, may embody information encoded in matter-energy carriers, and exhibit observable behaviour.

Peripheral devices

These models may define the structure and behavior of the system.Natural and human-made systemsThere are natural and human-made systems. Natural systems may not have an apparent objective but their behavior can be interpreted as purposeful by an observer. Human-made systems are made with various purposes that are achieved by some action performed by or with the system. The parts of a system must be related; they must be “designed to work as a coherent entity” — otherwise they would be two or more distinct systems. A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, structure and purpose and is expressed in its functioning.

Affected by the alterations taking place in the environment as it is separated from the system. Generally, people prefer open systems only, as closed systems are available in limited quantity. A flow system model is the representation of the flow of the material, energy, and information which intact the system.

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